how did james bevel die

After time in the military service, he became a minister. You can also ask your. I mean, I remember being afraid of being taken from my home, you know that that was an option that I could be leaved and I would have to stay at a foster home, and I had these horrible images that foster homes would be worse. After the verdict, Bevel claimed that the charges were part of a conspiracy to destroy his reputation, and said that he might appeal. on the Alabama project (Bevel, 13 April 1964). [25], In 1989, Bevel and Abernathy organized the National Committee Against Religious Bigotry and Racism. In 1962 Bevel left SNCC to become Mississippi field secretary for SCLC. During what was later called the Birmingham Children's Crusade, President John F. Kennedy asked King to stop using children in the campaign. Ms. MILLS: I mean we have to look at a lot of aspects of life, in those parallels. Bevel also was active in the anti-war movement and greatly influenced King, who Bevel encouraged to confront the Vietnam War more directly. Considered Martin Luther King, Jr 's most influential colleague and . In the 1980s and 1990s, Bevel founded Students for Education and Economic Development (SEED). Where did James Bevel die? So, we can assess it based on the truth or the facts in the matter and not just conspiracy as my father had called. The city officials could not pretend that the Civil Rights Movement isn't a big deal (Gilmore). Will YouTube dim the fire of preachers to the powerful. . "Both of those feelings reside in the same soul, in the same space of my heart.". He was 58 years old and the first monarch to unite the crowns of Scotland and England. I wrote her I love you letters, and you know, this was my day letters. And unfortunately not all of us are able to see the abuse even things that are obvious. In the decades after King's death, Bevel aligned himself with fringe movements. One of the things you said to me was that the healing growth and happiness that my family and I experienced need to be shared. In May 2007, Bevel was arrested in Alabama on a charge of incest committed sometime between October 1992 and October 1994 in Loudoun County, Virginia. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Although Bevel initially intended to pursue a recording career, he felt called to Christian ministry. And I remember in school they talked about good touches and bad touches, but the difference was, I didn't trust the people in school. As a girl she was repeated molested by her father the Reverend James Bevel, one of the most brilliant and daring strategists of the civil rights movement, an Icon. Bevel fought to desegregate downtown Birmingham stores, prompting police to respond with fire hoses and attack dogs against peaceful protesters. How do we look at this country with these two dynamics? Ms. MILLS: Well, in that it was going to be in the news, the story the side of the - my side should be told. [23] Bevel continued to oppose the Poor People's Campaign, but served as its Director of Nonviolent Education. Copyright 2008 NPR. James Bevel was born on the 19th of October, 1936. During that 90-minute call, Bevel's daughter asked him why he had sex with her the one time in 1993, and she asked him why he wanted her to use a vaginal douche afterward. . It contains an photo offset with an additional photo, coupled with a bio. While in the Jackson jail, Bevel and Bernard Lafayette initiated the Mississippi Voting Rights Movement. [13] In 1986, Bevel, Chicago alderman Danny K. Davis, singer-songwriter Kristin Lems, and others participated in a project of creating a summit in Chicago for Gorbachev and Reagan to bring peace and resolution to the ongoing Cold War. Instead, Bevel mocked the notion of an apology. Ms. MILLS: I don't, I don't think he's mentally ill. James Luther Bevel, (born Oct. 19, 1936, Itta Bena, Miss., U.S.died Dec. 19, 2008, Springfield, Va.), American minister and political activist who played a pivotal role in the civil rights movement in the early 1960s. How many of your sisters? He was 72. Last week, Joanna Connors a reporter for the Cleveland Plain Dealer told us about how 20 years later being raped still made her feel powerless and ashamed. Where it's flat and immense. As the number of adult participants willing to go to jail dwindled, Bevel began recruiting black students from Birminghams high schools, colleges, and churches to participate in the protests. In Birmingham when Dr. Martin Luther King was jailed, Bevel organized what became known as the Children's Crusade and faced Police Commissioner Bull Connor's fire hoses and police dogs. Bevel and Nash moved to Alabama in the spring of 1963 and played leading roles, along with Dorothy Cotton, Andrew Young, Bernard Lee, Fred Shuttlesworth, and the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights, in the campaign to desegregate Birmingham. Updated: October 8, 2011 . He suggested a march from Selma to . Find out about civil rights leader James Bevel: Age, What he did before fame, his family life Fun facts: before fame, family life, popularity rankings, and more Translate One, their own stories, each of them being able to tell their stories to me and for us to share. All photos and bio are bevel-cut and double matted under glass. James Luther Bevel was born in the farming community of Ittabena, Mississippi, on October 19, 1936. It's barbaric, but hey, it's home. SNCC had been conducting a Voting Rights Project (headed by Prathia Hall and Worth Long) since the early 1960s, meeting with violence in Alabama. [13] King was initially reluctant, but agreed. Bevel helped in the brainstorming for the March on Washington in 1963, and the Selma to Montgomery marches in 1965. She said Bevel's recent conviction does not detract from his work in the civil rights movement. It was later proven that a Ku Klux Klan chapter was responsible. Cookie Settings/Do Not Sell My Personal Information. According to a 2003 interview,[24] Bevel's favorite color was black, his favorite food was avocado, and his favorite time of year was spring. Orrin, who said she did not testify at Bevel's trial, said she was molested by her father when she was 12. Ms. MILLS: Is he appealing? Mr. Bevel attended New Hope Church of Christ and was president of the Whitaker Cemetery Board. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, African American Registry - Biography of James Bevel, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle - Biography of James Luther Bevel. His pressure paid off, and at the May 1964 executive staff meeting King recommended that SCLC increase its presence in Alabama. [6] Bevel strategized the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches, which contributed to Congressional passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. Yet when he died, disgraced after a conviction for incest in 2008 (the incident occurred in 1993, and Bevel said he was innocent), he was almost as unknown as he was in the 1960s. One of the reasons you pressed charges and it was decided that you would press charges is it's the statute of limitations in Virginia which is where this acts took place allowed him to be prosecuted. In April of this year, Mr. Bevel was convicted of having sexual intercourse with one of his daughters in the 1990s, when the girl was a teenager. BEVEL, amongst cabinet-makers and joiners, is an in strument used to take any angle with, or by which to mark a line which is not square. Three months after the March on Washington, Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, and Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson ascended to the Oval Office. The following day, when more students arrived at the church and started to walk to city hall, Eugene "Bull" Connor, City Commissioner of Public Safety, ordered that German Shepherd dogs and high-pressure fire hoses be used to stop them. MARTIN: Your story was very painful to read. And then things I never understood as parents. Particularly by somebody who portrays himself as a freedom fighter, as a person who's fighting for human dignity. How do you understand that? He entered the American Baptist Theological Seminary in Nashville in 1957 . And she was telling things that I experienced and that connected to me. The Rev. In the 1960s, James Bevel was appointed the leader of the civil rights group known as Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Kennedy's staff, who already were drafted one, came to an agreement on its contents with SCLC's leadership. Almost 1,000 students were arrested on the first day. This beautifully matted collector's photo presentation is a collage. We are not just, you know, one way all the time. She could not share it. He decides what's right and not right. On February 16, 1965, Jimmie Lee Jackson, his mother, and grandfather took part in a nighttime march led by C. T. Vivian to protest the related jailing of activist James Orange in Marion, Alabama. Do you think that's what it was? Bevel also served as pastor and adviser to Chicago's Council of Mothers; the West Side Baptist Minister's Conference; WorkShip Coalition; and the Nation of Islam. The Rev. The Institute cannot give permission to use or reproduce any of the writings, statements, or images of Martin Luther King, Jr. Ms. MILLS: I haven't spoken to him since the trial. Memorialize James's life with photos and stories about him and the Bevel family history and genealogy. Historian Taylor Branch quotes King in At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years, 19651968 (2006) as saying that "Andrew Young had given in to doubt, Bevel to brains, and Jackson to ambition", and said that the movement had made them and now they were using the movement to promote themselves. I don't believe so. I have to say, I think that it is powerfully courageous thing to do. Oh I come from a land, from a faraway place. Answer to: When did James Bevel die? During the 1950s and 1960s hundreds of thousands And I didn't say anything to them, mainly because they knew - because they had either witnessed it or I'd witness them doing behavior. [8][9] His last major action was as co-initiator of the 1995 Day of Atonement/Million Man March in Washington, D.C. For his work, Bevel has been called the strategist and architect of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement[10] and, with Dr. King, half of the first-tier team that formulated many of the strategies and actions to gain federal legislation and social changes during the 1960s civil rights era.[8][9]. [15] Diane Nash, the Nashville Student Movement's chairman, urged the group to continue the Freedom Rides, and called for college volunteers from Fisk and other universities across the South. They divorced after seven years. I'm Michel Martin, and this is tell me more from NPR News. When Bevel died in December 2008, he had served a few months of a 15-year sentence. You can also ask. Bevel died Friday in Virginia after . Things we often feel we have to keep hidden. He was sentenced in October. Bevel was born in 1936 in Itta Bena, Mississippi, the son of Illie and Dennis Bevel. Bevel and Nash helped lead the Freedom Rides in 1961 and married later that year. Ms. MILLS: And it's an hour and a half of him explaining his position. Born 1958 and died 1997. James Luther Bevel, (born Oct. 19, 1936, Itta Bena, Miss., U.S.died Dec. 19, 2008, Springfield, Va.), American minister and political activist who played a pivotal role in the civil rights movement in the early 1960s. [13], Actor and rapper Common portrays Bevel in the 2014 film Selma.[42]. Ms. MILLS: Well, it was in part my own experience when I left home at 16, and I went to stay with the Bruderhof, which is a Christian community similar to the Amish in Pennsylvania. Where was James Luther Bevel born and raised? And that you know they're my children, because my son knows his grandfather and he knows Martin Luther King and you know very respectful of him. These quality collectors pieces are designed for visual appeal. Ms. MILLS: There are eight girls. Actions, most emphatically, did not distinguish King from his equally courageous colleagues, whose words, like his, were congruent with their lives. In 1992, Bevel ran for vice president on a ticket with Lyndon LaRouche. He was ordained as a Baptist minister in 1959 and went on to pastor the Chestnut Grove Baptist Church. "I am very proud to be the daughter of a man who contributed so much to the world through his civil rights work. The accuser was one of his daughters, who was 1315 years old at the time and lived with him. During his childhood years, he resided in both Itta Bena and in Cleveland, Ohio working as a plantation laborer in the . And I wanted so much for him, not just to be a grandfather for grandfather's sake, but for him to find healing in himself and to come to some peace in himself so that he could be a grandfather and father. Community Rules apply to all content you upload or otherwise submit to this site. *James Bevel was born on this date in 1936. And I'd never see my brothers and sisters again. Bevel died Friday in Virginia after . Bevel served several months of his 15-year sentence before he was released in November on bond while appealing. [21], In 1968 Dr. King objected to Bevel and other SCLC organizers' opposition to proceeding with King's planned Poor People's Campaign. Civil Rights Activist. This was financially backed by the Unification Church of Sun Myung Moon, which appeared to be trying to improve its controversial image by allying with such respected leaders. Decades later, he also helped organize the Million Man March. In 1969, Bevel left SCLC and created the Making of a Man Clinic in 1970. Nash married civil rights activist James Bevel in 1961 and moved to Jackson, Mississippi where she began organizing voter registration and school desegregation campaigns for the SCLC. [37] On October 15, 2008, the judge sentenced him, based on the jury's recommendation, to 15 years in prison and fined him $50,000. At that meeting, which had been suggested by James Lawson, Bevel and King agreed to work together on an equal basis, with neither having veto power over the other, on projects under the auspices of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). And the heat is intense. Beloved actor and former college football star's cause of death. Eventually, the Freedom Riders reached their goal of New Orleans, Louisiana, generating nationwide coverage of the violence to maintain Jim Crow and white supremacy in the South.[16]. He studied at segregated schools in Mississippi and in Ohio. This piece comes framed in a beautifully sculpted black lacquered frame. Bevel also worked behind the scenes on the Chicago open housing movement in 1966; the anti-Vietnam War movement in 1967; the Memphis sanitation workers strike; and the Poor People's Campaign in 1968. As the Chicago movement neared its conclusion A. J. Muste, David Dellinger, representatives of North Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh, and others asked Bevel to take over the directorship of the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam. It must have been even more painful to tell. This kind of pseudo-philosophical - I'm not even sure - how do would you describe it? The Institute cannot give permission to use or reproduce any of the writings, statements, or images of Martin Luther King, Jr. Arguably, if James Bevel had died in 1968 instead of Dr. King then the national holiday which honors the movement would fall on October 19th instead of January 15th, a statement which comes not from bias towards Bevel but from a study of the facts of the Civil Rights Movements timeline, decision-making structure, and its growing importance in . But in April, a jury convicted Bevel of incest for having sex more than a decade ago with a then-teenage daughter. In the 1960s, Bevel was a leader in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, two of the stalwart organizations that led efforts to desegregate the South. The Rev. From the Helen L. Bevel Archives,, Statements by Rev. After leaving the SCLC the year prior, Bevel created the Making of the Man Clinic in 1970. He and the others were arrested after they arrived in Jackson, Mississippi and tried to desegregate the waiting rooms in the bus terminal. Lafayette and his wife, Colia Lidell, also opened an SNCC project in Selma, Alabama, to assist the work of local organizers such as Amelia Boynton. Bevel was a top lieutenant to Martin Luther King Jr. [13], Feeling an inner call to become a minister, he attended the American Baptist Theological Seminary in Nashville, Tennessee from 1957 to 1961 and became a Baptist preacher. He was recently released on bond while appealing a 15-year prison sentence. That's not to excuse the extremes in which people go, but it's the understanding. But what options do they have. James Forman (October 4, 1928 - January 10, 2005) was a prominent African-American leader in the civil rights movement.He was active in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Black Panther Party, and the League of Revolutionary Black Workers.As the executive secretary of SNCC from 1961 to 1966, Forman played a significant role in the Freedom Rides, the Albany movement, the . And we try to stay on one side of what we think is right and good. There are other ways to live, and you could choose how you wanted to live your life. "Saying 'I'm sorry' is a game we play. I mean my little sister was 14 at that time, but what if you know - what can you really do? And what really helped me was the fact that I had such a support system. That was our hope, but he wasn't ready to look at himself. [35], During the trial, prosecutors presented key evidence: a 2005 police-sting telephone call recorded by the Leesburg police without Bevel's knowledge. He worked closely with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Bevel, and was the Director of Direct Action, as well as the Director of Nonviolent Education of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. There are a lot of people who would have run in the other direction, who would have just, look I am gone - I don't - I can't deal with this. James Bevel was born on October 19, 1936 and died on December 19, 2008. And I would always tell her the things that he did to me and what he would say if he got a chance to do it to her. Come on down, stop on by. The Rev. He joined the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. "Dr. King could not have done the things he did unless he had a James Bevel." ---- Ralph David Abernathy "He was a great philosopher, an unbelievable philosopher." He entered the American Baptist Theological Seminary in Nashville in 1957; he graduated and was ordained in 1961. In 1968, Mr. Bevel was at the Memphis motel where Dr. King was assassinated, and in a bizarre post-mortem, he claimed that the man who was arrested for (and later convicted of) the shooting, James Earl Ray, was not the killer and that he had evidence which he declined to reveal that Mr. Ray was innocent. Their meetings occurred at Birmingham's 16th Street Baptist Church, and it was from there that Bevel directed the students, 50 at a time, to peacefully walk to Birmingham's City Hall to talk to Mayor Art Hanes about segregation in the city. [12], In 1960, along with James Lawson's and Myles Horton's students Bernard Lafayette, John Lewis, Diane Nash, C.T. He put this barrier between us and the world. As he prepared to work on the Alabama voter registration movement that would later culminate in the 1965 Selma to Montgomery March, Bevel informed King that more staff was needed to build a nonviolent movement in Alabama. They worked together on civil rights, and had a daughter and son together. We know that James E Bevel had been residing in Anderson, Madison County, Indiana 46012. LaRouche, characterized as a perennial candidate, was serving a prison sentence for mail fraud and tax evasion. People Photos Purpose. Bevel was in the parking lot of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis and witnessed King's assassination on April 4, 1968. While a seminarian, he participated in two forms of nonviolent protest against institutionalized racial segregation: sit-ins by African American youths at department-store lunch counters in 1960 and the Freedom Rides on bus lines throughout the South in 1961. Updated: November 11, 2011 . He attended workshops at the . Do you have any idea where you were able to find that within yourself to do this? [9] As the first march reached the end of the Edmund Pettus Bridge and passed out of the city, they were attacked by county police and Alabama State Troopers. They would have two children. And so, I had moved on and I had felt that my father perhaps - like it was my fault. His contention that convicted assassin James Earl Ray was not guilty of Kings murder embarrassed many in the movement. Springfield, Virginia, USA. Menu. Bevel served as pastor of the Hebraic-Christian-Islamic Assembly in Chicago; a board member of Chicago's Fulfilling Our Responsibilities Unto Mankind (F.O.R.U.M. Mr. Bevel had been released from prison in November because he had pancreatic cancer. James Luther Bevel was born on October 19, 1936, in the town of Itta Bena, Mississippi. And you can listen to it for, you know, over and over again and it won't make sense. Please c, ontact Intellectual Properties Management (IPM), the exclusive licensor of the Estate of Martin Luther King, Jr., Inc. at. 2023 The HistoryMakers. Because the executor of Bevel's estate had not sought to prosecute the appeal, the Court affirmed the dismissal of his appeal as moot. Particularly my - one of my - little sister, not the youngest one that was in the household, but particularly her because I had, I had sought to protect to her. Don't think I thought about James Bevel until he died in 2008 at age 72. P: (650) 723-2092 | F: (650) 723-2093 || Campus Map. Originally planned as a rally in Central Park, the United Nations Anti-Vietnam War March became the largest demonstration in American history to that date. He often wore overalls over a shirt and tie; he shaved his head and sometimes covered it with a yarmulke in honor of Old Testament prophets. You know, it was just me. Eventually Bevel and his colleagues won a hard-fought, nonviolent victory; soon after, as chairman of the Nashville student movement, Bevel participated in Freedom Rides to desegregate interstate travel and public accommodations throughout the South. While working on SNCC's commitment to desegregate theaters, Bevel successfully directed the 1961 Nashville Open Theater Movement. He served in the U.S. And the sand in the glass is right. This defendant should die in jail.". The chain of events and police violence that was captured on national television ultimately culminated in the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. [19] He worked to create tenant unions and build grassroots action to "end" slums. It was under his leadership that the organization undertook most of their iconic campaigns including the Birmingham Children's Crusade in 1963, Selma voting rights movement in 1965, and the Chicago open housing . Charismatic and eloquently quick-witted in a vernacular style, Mr. Bevel was known as a man of passion and peculiarity. After buses and riders were severely attacked, including a firebombing of a bus and beatings with police complicity in Birmingham, Alabama, CORE suspended the rides. In 1993, two 10-year-old boys tortured and murdered the toddler after leading him away from a . I am equally as devastated and disgusted by his pedophilia," Orrin said. As a member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), and then as its Director of Direct Action and Nonviolent Education, Bevel initiated, strategized, and developed SCLC's three major successes of the era:[2][3] the 1963 Birmingham Children's Crusade,[4] the 1965 Selma voting rights movement, and the 1966 Chicago open housing movement. At the time, Bevel was living in Leesburg, Virginia, and working with LaRouche's group, whose international headquarters was a few blocks from Bevel's apartment. So, I didn't feel that it was wrong. Bevel led this effort as the head of SCLCs Direct Action Department. Bevel feared that activists who were not committed to nonviolence were conductingdemonstration[s] for the sake of demonstrating,and that these tactics resulted inrioting and deaths.He advised,In order to off-set these trends, the non-violent must project and execute a program that will [allow] more Negroes to become convinced of the effectiveness of non-violence and the principles of it.Bevel further implored King to putthe whole non-violent staffon the Alabama project (Bevel, 13 April 1964). And my little sister who had a more recent experience in Chicago, she could have, but she could not talk. There is no indication that he followed Jesus at all during Jesus' earthly lifetime. Ms. MILLS: Right. James found out he had a gallbladder infection and needed emergency surgery. Bevel also served as pastor and adviser to Chicago's Council of Mothers; the West Side Baptist Minister's Conference; WorkShip Coalition; and the Nation of Islam. But before the Poor People's campaign occurred, King and the SCLC organizers traveled to Memphis, Tennessee, to organize a march in support of a sanitation strike after King's and James Lawson's first march had turned into a riot. Where the caravan camels roam. Bevel would not reveal the evidence, and Ray was convicted of the crime. One week later, city leaders reached an accord with movement leaders. And I always thought that was odd and that people would do something that's not going to be forgotten. This movement ended within a Summit Conference that included Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley. During his trial, testimony indicated that Bevel considered it parents' duty to "sexually orient" their children. James Bevel (1936-2008) James Bevel was one of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s most trusted advisors during the American Civil Rights campaigns of the mid-20th century. He died on December 19, 2008 in Springfield, Virginia, USA. James L. Bevel, a prominent figure in the civil rights movement whose legacy was clouded by an incest conviction has died, a relative said. James Luther Bevel, one of 17 children, was born on Oct 19, 1936, in Itta Bena, in central Mississippi, and divided his childhood between there and Cleveland, where he worked in the steel mills as a teenager. A minister and civil right activist who was the Director of Direct Action and the Director of Nonviolent Education of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference during the 1960's. James Bevel was born in MS. And actually during the trial he came out of the court room and he had met my daughter. He received an appeal bond on November 4, 2008, and was released from jail three days later, after a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Please contact Intellectual Properties Management (IPM), the exclusive licensor of the Estate of Martin Luther King, Jr., Inc. atlicensing@i-p-m.comor 404 526-8968. Did you always sense that it was wrong? He unsuccessfully ran for Congress in 1984, served as Lyndon LaRouches running mate in the 1992 U.S. presidential election, and helped organize the Million Man March in 1995. He was a member of the Nashville Student Movement in 1961, and rode the first bus of Freedom Riders into Jackson on May 24. After bailing out, he began recruiting future Riders in Jackson, and set up a CORE office there. Omissions? And the suns from the West. The large group were bludgeoned and tear-gassed in what became known as "Bloody Sunday". "My hope was for him to apologize in a Christian way, to repent. Bevel had hoped for probation so he could enter hospice care. We have great country we live in that had slavery. For this purpose the blade is made to move in a long groove, made in the stock or handle, and fixed to it by a nut and screw, so that it will alter to suit any degree of obliquity required; and thus it . Freedom's Ring: King's "I Have a Dream" Speech, King holds press conference on opening day of Youth Leadership Conference at Shaw University, King addresses Youth Leadership Conference in Raleigh. "I had really bad . James Bevel, Self: 4 Little Girls. Brother of Jesus Christ. He subsequently joined the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), serving as project director and becoming one of the most influential advisers to the SCLCs head, Martin Luther King, Jr. On Bevels recommendation, hundreds of youth were mobilized in 1963 in the childrens crusade to participate in peaceful antisegregation protests in downtown Birmingham, Ala. All rights reserved (About Us). And I realized that, one, that it wasn't just you know, one way to live. SNCC Chairman John Lewis and Amelia Boynton were both injured. And my sisters and my brothers also, you know, because my brothers were also stood behind us 100 percent and said, you know we have to do something. Tina Howard Bevel Expand search. James L. Bevel, The Freedom Rides, This page was last edited on 22 February 2023, at 14:24. Doctors estimate he has only six weeks to six months to live. I don't want to relive any of that. She was kind enough to join us here on our Washington studio. The "Children's Crusade," as the movement led by Bevel came to be known, turned the media tide in the favor of the desegregationists. "Jim Bevel was Martin Luther King's most influential aide," civil rights historian David J. Garrow said. But when I was there, I actually saw it. Bevel was a top lieutenant to Martin Luther King Jr. and architect of the 1963 Children's Crusade in Birmingham. Naval Reserve in 1954 and 1955 before entering the American Baptist Theological Seminary in Nashville, Tennessee. He was 72. He doesn't understand the whole dynamics of what's going on now. In March 1965 protesters made a symbolic march, inspired by a fiery speech by Bevel at Brown Chapel A.M.E. Church, where much organizing was done.

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