political organisation of the acholi

Inheritance. Its current population is estimated to be around 2.155,000 individuals, or six percent of the total national population. Atkinson, Ronald R. (1994). Social Organization. Many of the Acholi soldiers who joined the Kings African Rifles (KAR), the British colonial army, were deployed to the frontlines in southeast Asia especially in Singapore and Burma during the World War II where they held British positions against an intense Japanese offensive. Administrative divisions within Acholi, however, both during colonial Location. Vincent (2012). //]]>, ETHNONYMS: Acoli, Acooli; historically: Gani, Lango, Lo-Gang, Shuuli. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press. 2 I Abstract The aim of this thesis will be to decipher why Acholi ethnic identity remained such a critical political tool in late and post-colonial Uganda, from 1950-1985, just b comparably flat. Linguistic Affiliation. Given the low population densities and minimal land pressure, almost anyone who was willing to clear and work unused land has been welcomed by lineage heads responsible for such land and, while they functioned, by the rwodi of chiefdoms within whose domains the land lay. [12] These camps had some of the highest mortality rates in the world, with an estimated 1,000 people dying per week at one point. centralised kingdom but instead organised themselves as a collection of smaller chiefdoms. sociopolitical units: lineages at the parish level; chiefdoms at the Until 1967 Uganda was a quasi-federal polity that included five subregional monarchies, non-monarchical districts, and a central government. Orientation The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Analytics". Sociopolitical organization - Acholi reported that the Acholi chiefs generally accepted the position of Baker, as he had helped them Further tidying up and smoothing over the grave take place within the week. of them innocent civilianslost their lives; from the mid-1980s Sons have traditionally learned about farming, hunting, herding, and lineage and chiefdom traditions from their fathers and other lineage males; girls learn farming and domestic duties from their mothers. According to the Sign up to Minority rights Group International's newsletter to stay up to date with the latest news and publications. Organizational politics are informal, unofficial, and sometimes behind-the-scenes efforts to sell ideas, influence an organization, increase power, or achieve other targeted objectives (Brandon & Seldman, 2004; Hochwarter, Witt, & Kacmar, 2000). Division of Labor. Okot p'Bitek (1963). During Uganda's colonial period, the British encouraged political and economic development in the south of the country, in particular among the Baganda. Since Ugandan forces pushed the LRA out of Northern Uganda, the majority were able to return to their homes, though without much in the way of government support. Significantly, iron-ore deposits were located mainly at or just beyond the western, northeastern, southeastern, and southern boundaries of what became Acholi, and trade for this iron created networks of movement and interaction that helped determine a collective identity within these boundaries. Women also provide major labor in the fields, as well as being responsible for most child rearing and all cooking and other food-preparation tasks. Conflict. Updates? This in turn forged new political entities and identities as well as wider social relations. In the precolonial era, warfare, herding, and hunting were the domain of men. According to the latest census, there are 1.47 million ethnic Acholi in Uganda, amounting to 4.4 per cent of the total population. solidification of an Acholi identity, with their common language becoming an important marker. The LRA has been targeting civilians, the majority being their own tribe, the Acholi. Traditional beliefs, however, still persist, often meshed with Christian doctrine in complex ways. Over the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, some seventy chiefdoms were founded throughout the area that became Acholi, leading to the development of a new social order and political culture, the spread of a new language (Luo), and the evolution of a new society and collective identity. Uganda Journal 7(1): 27-43. political organisation of the acholi When not disrupted or dispossessed by the violence endemic since the mid-1980s, most Acholi remain primarily mixed farmers. The most common domestic animals are (and have long been) chickens and goats, with some cattle, especially in the dryer portions of Acholi. The combination of the two events, have put pressure on the LRA to lay down its arms. A rebellion in 1911 in response to the British confiscation of Acholi guns was the last large-scale conflict in Acholi until Amin came to power in 1971. This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy McKenna. census of 2014, those seven districts were combined inhabited by just under 1.4 million people Political Organization. The size and nature of this occasion depend on the age and status of the deceased, with the most lavish and festive celebrations taking place when the person who died was both aged and important. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. When conflict did occur, however, it was usually limited in scope, with relatively few deaths. Uganda Journal 19(1): 57-61. "Is Alice Lakwena a Witch? They have also "played a vital role in Acholi traditional reconciliation processes and in preparing the community to receive former combatants. Even in this . environment and larger distances between settlements kept the hierarchical structures Notable among the Acholi soldiers who made the ranks were Gen. Tito Okello-Lutwa, Brig. Odongo, J. M. Onyango-ku-, and J. "In 1997, the Catholic, Anglican, Muslim, and later the Orthodox religious leaders of Acholi formalized their increasing cooperation on peace issues by setting up the Acholi Religious Leaders' Peace Initiative (ARLPI). However, this rebellion was defeated when it attempted to attack Under Ugandan Pres. The personal and group loss resulting from death is acknowledged as real and permanent. Kinship Terminology. During the colonial period, political leadership in Acholi was contested among those with traditional leadership qualifications and others who benefited from the new dispensation, including collaborators with the British and those who managed to obtain Western education. Kuturia Housein fired the first gun shot on Acholiland who had never seen and Individual antecedents of political behavior include political . Atkinson, Ronald R. (1989). The existence of separate chiefdoms was therefore not an Milton Obote (196271, 198085). encompasses the six closely related languages Acholi, Adhola, Alur, Kumam, Lango and [10] General Tito Okello was an Acholi, and came to power in a military coup. Political Organizations | Encyclopedia.com [10], The Acholi are known to the outside world mainly because of the long insurgency of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) led by Joseph Kony, an Acholi from Gulu. Orientation Boys and girls are typically socialized into distinct gender roles, and do household and other chores accordingly. 2.4. heard of gun sound, they were used to only lightning thunder sound. Even though the recent history of conflict can in some ways be tracked all the way back to the A single rainy season, from April-May to October-November, produces a reliable annual rainfall nine years of every ten, ranging from 102 centimeters in the central and western portions of Acholi to only 51 centimeters in much of the north and east. The term Mende refers to both the people and the langua, Achievements by Indian Physical Scientists, https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/acholi. to the land by Kuturia caused a lot of death in the sub-region of Acholi. (p. 34). The history and politics of ethnicity and language 37. Traditionally, lineage heads and elders were the most knowledgeable aboutand involved withthe lineage and chiefdom jogi, although rwodi also had a role to play in ceremonies involving the latter. against the central government. The cookie is set by the GDPR Cookie Consent plugin and is used to store whether or not user has consented to the use of cookies. and tributes paid to them. During the colonial period, political leadership in Acholi was contested among those with traditional leadership qualifications and others who benefited from the new dispensation, including collaborators with the British and those who managed to obtain Western education. Archaeological and linguistic evidence suggests that from early in the Christian era, Acholi was settled mainly by Central Sudanic (or "proto-Central Sudanic") speakers in the west and Eastern Nilotic ("proto-Eastern Nilotic") speakers in the east. The main point of contact their clans, giving them the ability to accumulate wealth and power beyond their rights to land friendly, but after the inception of the British Protectorate of Uganda in 1894, which included The northerners also contributed to the further evolution of an Acholi identity, not only by introducing the name "Shuuli," which eventually became "Acholi," but by acting in ways that promoted Acholi as a meaningful ethnic and geographic entity. Traditionally, a grave is dug as soon as a person has died, following which a small and brief ceremony is held in the deceased's house prior to burial. Situated 1,025 to 1,350 meters above sea level, the Acholi landscape is typical East African game countryrolling grasslands with scattered trees, streams, and rock outcrops. "Some Notes on Acholi Religious Ceremonies." Museveni has held absolute power since, surviving unrest, civil war, and numerous attempts at coups. Bride-wealth has varied over time but has usually included iron objects, domestic animals, and, in the twentieth century, money. Acholi | Encyclopedia.com L. No. Classics in African Anthropology - International African Institute In precolonial Acholi, lineage heads and elders were most responsible for social control, though one of the attractions that assisted the development of chiefdoms seems to have been the ability of rwodi to help settle disputes that involved more than one lineage. the Lords Resistance Army (LRA), echoing some of the spiritual themes used by the Holy Spirit The Acholi, a Nilotic Lwo-speaking ethnic group, live predominantly in the central region of northern Uganda, an space collectively named to known as Acholiland. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/acholi, "Acholi We hope you find it interesting. "Acholi-Arab Nubian Relations in the Nineteenth Century." "Acholi He wrote, "Part of the structural causes of the conflict in Uganda has been explained as rooted in the 'diversity of ethnic groups which were at different levels of socio-economic development and political organisation.' This term then Most Acholi, however, continue to live in neighborhoods (parishes) that not only consist predominantly of patrilineal kinsmen and their wives, but often carry the old lineage names. Conflict. But when Idi Amin overthrew Obotes first spell in power, and when Yoweri Musevini ousted Okello, the Acholi paid heavily for their allegiances. All of these early inhabitants were ironworking mixed farmers, organized into localized patrilineal lineages or, in some cases, into temporary groupings of two to four such lineages. From the beginning, the Acholi were marginal compared to Britain's concern with Buganda, at the core of the colony. This conflict lasted until 2008 and ended with the LRA fleeing to Eastern Over the twentieth century, chiefdoms in Acholi have become vestigial institutions, and the fences that once enclosed villages have disappeared. Since the entrenchment of colonial rule, an average of 10 to 20 percent of adult Acholi males at any one time have been involved in migrant labor or employment in the police or army that has taken them from their home and families. Arts. Most Acholi also continue to live in thatched, round mud houses, although wealthier Acholi and those who live in town or near major roads have square houses of mud or block, with iron or tile roofs. It has similarity with Alur, Padhola language, and other Luo languages in South Sudan Shilluk, Anuak,Pari, Balanda, Boor, Thuri. [25], Some of the groups in Acholi, like the UPDA, detested the Museveni regime because it had overthrown the government in which they served. In 2005, the new International Criminal Court in The Hague issued arrest warrants for Joseph Kony and other top LRA commanders. This cookies is set by Youtube and is used to track the views of embedded videos. The primary language of Acholi today is Luo, a Western Nilotic language spoken by groups scattered across East Africa from the southern Sudan to Tanzania; many also speak English and/or Kiswahili. The dry season is long and hot, with temperatures that can reach more than 35 C. Demography. common identity had already formed prior to that during the 18th century. He was defeated in January 1986. [6] While Acholi also lives north of the South Sudanese border, the Sudanese Acholi are often excluded from the political meaning of the term "Acholiland". Then a final dance and feast takes place at a time chosen to make possible the maximum attendance by relatives and other interested people. for social control, though one of the attractions that assisted the Numbering between 400 and 500 by the turn of the twentieth century, these exogamous groups claim descent from a common ancestor (although means exist to incorporate many types of "outsiders" as well) and have special lineage shrines, ritual ceremonies, praise-calls, and totems. //13.4 Organizational Politics - Organizational Behavior with the British was through Samuel Baker. Refer to each styles convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. into the 1990s, Acholi was the scene of similar levels of conflict. Farming and hunting dominated the live in this rural authority of a district commissioner. The results showed that students had, On the one hand, languages are translatable, which can be demonstrated from different perspectives such as the general characteristics of language, the parallel linguistic, The purpose of this study was to examine the language attitudes and language practices of Arabic-speaking families living in the United States. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Batswana are divided into a number of subgroups or "tribes": Bahurut, Shona The men were skilled hunters, using nets and spears. There were the spirits of known relatives, especially lineage ancestors; a second type was the nonancestral jok of the chiefdom as a whole. [26], In 2016, the multi award-winning film, A Brilliant Genocide was produced. It was filmed by Australian director Ebony Butler, Simon Hardwidge and Ugandan author Frey Onen. B. K. (1994). The socio-political and economic organization of the Maasai during the This special access to Uganda's security forces has alternately presented opportunity and danger as a succession of regimes replaced one another in a cycle of political violence often played out in ethnic (or "tribal") terms. The Acholi resisted the establishment of the before. We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. colonial times, were the Acholi stood often in opposition to the British colonial rule, the starting During the later nineteenth century, the emergent Acholi became involved in the international trade in ivory and slaves, which were exchanged mainly for cattle, beads, blankets, cotton cloth, and firearms. 61). Uganda Now: Between Decay and Development. Visit the repository for full metadata or to contact the repository team This is used to present users with ads that are relevant to them according to the user profile. Land Tenure. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. This cookie is installed by Google Analytics. Acholi officers now expected Obote to appoint an Acholi to replace Oyite Ojok. In September 1996, the Ugandan government moved hundreds of thousands of Acholi from the Gulu district into camps, ostensibly for their protection. Crazzolara, J. P. (1950-1954). Approximately 2.1 million Acholi were counted in the Uganda census of 2014, and 45,000 more were living in South Sudan in 2000.[4]. POLITICAL ORGANIZATION. Milton Obote, the independence leader, relied heavily on the support of his fellow Luo-speakers Acholi and Langi in government. Many contemporary Acholi continue to use these treatments, although nearly all with access to clinics and hospitals rely on these as well, whenever they can. [1994], p. 80). 1 Northern Uganda or Acholiland is formally known as the Acholi sub-region, an area inhab-ited primarily by speakers of the Acholi language, whom I refer to as the Acholi. The largest political unit was the tribal section, regarded as the geographical nation. They were also against the power consolidation approach of the NRA, which included mass arrest, torturing, killing, cattle raiding, food crop destruction, and looting and burning of villages. southern parts of the country. Since independence, a relatively few Acholi army officers have managed In the past, medical problems were addressed through approaches to various spirits, by visits to diviners, and by the use of herbs, roots, and other folk medicines. Recognized compensation and reconciliation procedures seem to have often limited or prevented serious conflict, especially among neighboring chiefdoms within the same zone. State | Definition, History, Figures, & Facts | Britannica While Bantu speaking groups had begun to occupy In 1986 Alice Lakwenas charismatic Holy Spirit Movement mounted an insurgency in the Acholi region. Hier sind Acholi-Frauen dafr bekannt, . The data collected including the number visitors, the source where they have come from, and the pages visted in an anonymous form. In addition to these six languages, some authors also classify Labwor (Ladefoged, The cookie is used to store information of how visitors use a website and helps in creating an analytics report of how the website is doing. Okot p'Bitek's epic poem, Song of Lawino, debates Acholi customs around the time that Uganda became independent. This trade brought new wealth into Acholi that was unevenly accumulated, with rwodi and interpreters (and eventually their sons and other kinsmen) the major beneficiaries. Much of that hierarchy continued The Age-set spokesmen handled affairs involving interclan cooperation. This made the chiefs more independent from 116-25 Section 3101, requires electronic filing by exempt organizations in tax years beginning after July 1, 2019. (Ugandan Parliamentary Committee on Defence and Internal Affairs 1997. This cookie is installed by Google Analytics. These rebellions sprung up in defiance and from disapproval of the conduct and legitimacy of the new NRA government. The LRA received much of its financial, logistical and military support from the Khartoum government in neighbouring Sudan. members of royal lineages, and lineage heads all seem to have been formations in the form of chiefdoms and kingdoms by the end of the first millennium A.D. From the Village to Entebbe: The Acholi of Northern Uganda and . While rwodi, their inherited wealth to build up prominent twentieth-century families. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyse and understand how you use this website. The insurgency's military. Most prominent among them was the Uganda People's Army (UPA) in Teso and Lango sub region, the West Nile Bank Frontiers (WNBF) in the West Nile region, the Uganda People's Democratic Army, the Holy Spirit Movement and the LRA in the Acholi region. By clicking 'Accept', you consent to the use of all the cookies. These include Christian marriage (with or without bride-wealth), elopement, and single parenthood. As some of these languages show some form Acholi by international trade, and descendants of some of these men used Dholuo, which is spoken in in the West of Kenya. Political Organization. Even though this contact was described as a grossly negative experience for the Acholi, this The women have accomplished agriculturists, growing and processing a variety of food crops, including millet, simsim, groundnuts, peas, sorghum and vegetables. The colonial experience of the Acholi differed greatly from the experience of those in the Kin Groups and Descent. M.A. Death and Afterlife. (unpublished thesis) Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International . Political Organization. the northern parts remained ignored for a long time. last large-scale conflict in Acholi until Amin came to power in 1971. portrayed this relationship in his account as rather hostile and negative: Most of these Arabs carrying business of slave trade were coming from Egypt, they These cookies help provide information on metrics the number of visitors, bounce rate, traffic source, etc. In terms of the afterlife, although spirits of the dead are believed to continue to exist and manifest themselves, there is no belief in a heaven to reward the virtuous or a hell to punish the sinful. Tonga Aristotle wrote that politics stems . In addition, the peace forums have worked to help establish the Amnesty Commission. "[20] They have continued to work to end the war through negotiation. Hansen, Holger B., and Michael Twaddle, eds. According to the latest census, there are 1.47 million ethnic Acholi in Uganda, amounting to 4.4 per cent of the total population. The camps caused misery and sufferingwith a conservative death toll of 1,000 people a week. Organizational politics is a natural part of organizational life. NRA in 1986. That is why the Lango neighbours refer to the Acholi as Ugangi, meaning people of the home. These cookies ensure basic functionalities and security features of the website, anonymously. famines forced groups to move within the Acholi territory and create more cohesive forms of The long civil war in the North has destroyed much of their society. 30. Children are highly prized, and historically a couple did not set up their own household until the birth of their first child, living until then in the household of the husband's mother. Marriage has been typically patrilocal and patriarchal, with the husband and father as the undisputed head of the household. element of the social and political environment of the region. of mutual intelligibility amongst each other, they were at times interpreted as a dialectal cluster Apoko, Anna (1967). [13] The refugees in the camps have also been subject to raids by both LRA and government forces.[10]. Vincent (2012), a Gulu-based This paper is a case study analysis of the sociological phenomena of forgiveness occurring in an ongoing two-decade war in northern Uganda. In search of chiefly authority in 'post-aid' Acholiland Milton Obote (1962-71, 1980-85). Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. With colonial rule came a new hierarchy of chiefs, clerks, and policemen, all under the authority of a district commissioner. From early on, girls and boys learn gender-appropriate behaviors and activities, and these are reflected in both their play and their chores and other responsibilities. The Migration of Nilotes and Their Settlement | SpringerLink Political organizations are those engaged in political activities (e.g., lobbying, community organizing, campaign advertising, etc.) B. Webster, eds. This has continued in various guises ever since. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. with the Gulu district being by far the most populated one (Uganda, 2016). This included both agricultural and hunting land. The cookie is used by cdn services like CloudFare to identify individual clients behind a shared IP address and apply security settings on a per-client basis. In addition there were priest- or priestess-diviners, private practitioners who worked for the well-being of their clients, and witches, who worked in private for evil or destructive purposes. Over the second half of the nineteenth century, Acholi was incorporated into international trade networks through the activities of northern, Arabic-speaking ivory and slave traders. 1544957. "State Formation in Acholi: The Emergence of Obbo, Pajok, and Panyikwara States c. Before the late seventeenth century, Luo speakers were limited to only a few peripheral areas of Acholi. The civil war devastated the lives and livelihoods of the Acholi people of the north. PUBLISHED: 30/01/2023. Contemporary versions or amalgams of these practitioners continue to function in Acholi. The Acholi occupy a 39,000-square-kilometer area, three-fourths of which lies within Uganda, extending roughly from 215 to 4159 N and 3325 to 3345 E. Their neighbors include the Luo-speaking Lango, Paluo, and Alur to the south and southwest, the Central Sudanic-speaking Madi to the west, and the Eastern Nilotic Jie and Karamojong to the east. Orientation Acholi people - Wikipedia This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. The government of Uganda has responded to the conflict by adopting both military and general amnesty strategies. As a result, many widowed Acholi have been unable to access their land on return to their homes. Advertisement cookies are used to provide visitors with relevant ads and marketing campaigns. (1988). into the independence era. Organizations that are driven by unhealthy levels of political behavior suffer from lowered employee organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and performance as well as higher levels of job anxiety and depression. rule and since independence, have often reflected preexisting The Social Origins of Violence in Uganda, 1964-1 985. million first language speakers at the time. in 1911 in response to the British confiscation of Acholi guns was the ." A Study of the Acooli Language: Grammar and Vocabulary. PDF "Acholi Youth Are Lost": Young, Christian and (A)political in Uganda The political ramifications for Uganda, however, were severe. a civil resistance movement started forming in the region. All members of the household acknowledge the authority of its head, the husband; each wife or other adult female in the household has traditionally had her own fields, granaries, and kitchen or cooking hut. The full integration of the Acholi into the British colonial complex happened comparatively late. With the coming of the ivory and slave trades, and the firearms that accompanied them, conflict became more frequent, more deadly, and more widely spread. More The third group of spirits were those of unknown persons and dangerous beasts; these were hostile, personified as ghosts, believed to cause sickness and other misfortunes, and dealt with by means of spirit possession. organisation to survive, a common identity had to form to support this new social structure of

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